Reading III – Making a Summary

How to summarize:

1. Read the passage  at least twice so you can fully understand what the author is saying.

2. Isolate the thesis or main idea

3. Highlight or underline sections in the text that support the author’s main idea

4. Rephrase the main points in your own sentence, keep the author’s intended purpose and

message

5. Don’t include examples and details

6. Begin with a reference to the author, the title of the work, and if possible date and place

of publication

7. Make up a new thesis that explains the main idea of the new passage, don’t just restate

the author’s thesis

8. T0 avoid plagiarism, make sure to change the the thesis, sentence structure and

vocabulary

9. A summary does not have to be in the same order as the original passage, unless it is

necessary for comprehension

10. Revise and edit to ensure accuracy

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Development Psychology – Tes IQ

Definisi Inteligensi : kemampuan berpikir secara abstrak, memecahkan masalah dengan

menggunakan simbol-simbol verbal, dan kemampuan untuk belajar

menyesuaikan diri dengan pengalaman hidup sehari-hari.

Intelegensi pada setiap anak tidak sama. Pengukuran terhadap intelegensi seseorang dilakukan melalui Tes IQ. Tes IQ dikembangkan oleh para psikolog, khususnya Alfred Binet (1857-1911), seorang dokter dan psikolog Perancis yang paling berjasa dalam perkembangan tes intelegensi.

Binet merancang tes intelegensi berdasarkan konsep usia mental (mental age/MA) dan usia sejak lahir atau usia kronologis (calendar age/CA). Menurut Binet:

MA diatas CA : cerdas

MA dibawah CA: kurang cerdas

Tes IQ dikembangkan lebih jauh dan disempurnakan oleh William Stern, seorang psikolog Jerman (1871-1938). Stern juga mengembangan istilah Intelligence Quotient (IQ), dengan rumus:

IQ : rasio antara MA/CA x 100

Klasifikasi IQ:

* Diatas 139: sangat superior (genius, sangat pandai)

* 120 – 139  : superior (dapat selesai studi di universitas tanpa kesulitan)

* 110 – 119   : diatas rata-rata (dapat selesai sekolah lanjutan tanpa kesulitan)

* 90 – 109    : dapat menyelesaikan sekolah lanjutan

* 80 – 89      : di bawah rata-rata, dapat menyelesaikan sekolah dasar

* 70 – 79      : borderline, dapat belajar tapi lambat

* Di bawah 70 : terbelakang secara mental, tidak bisa ikut pendidikan di sekolah biasa

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Sociolinguistics – Characteristics of Language

Characteristics of Language:

1. Size : Larger in items (such as vocabulary) than a dialect

2. Prestige: Language has prestige, while a dialect lacks

3. Popular usage : the variety is widely used

4. Mutual intelligibility : understanding between the speakers in the given social context

5. Geography : language is defined by/based on the geography

6. Nationality : language is usually a nation

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Speaking – Language Functions

The following are some language functions that are usually found in IELTS Speaking Test:

– providing personal and non-personal information

– describing people, places and employment

– expressing preferences, likes and dislikes

– giving reasons, explanation and examples

– describing an event

– expressing future plans, hopes and wishes

– speculating and predicting

– expressig enthusiasm

– comparing and contrasting

– expressing certainty and uncertainty

– expressing opinions

– expressig conditions

– making suggestions

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Study Skills – Setting Priorities

Setting priorities can be done using the matrix below:

If a task is:

Urgent and important : do it right away

Important but not urgent : make a schedule for it

Urgent but not important: delegate it to others

Not important and not urgent: don’t do it at all

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Pronunciation – Deletion

DELETION

Deletion commonly occurs in spoken language. Deletion is the omitting of certain sound of words when one is speaking in normal speed. Deletion may occur to either vowels or consonants. However, not all vowels and consonants may be deleted.

Consonants deleted in normal speech are /h/, /t/, /d/, and /k/. Consonant /h/ is deleted from functional words; whereas /t/, /d/, and /k/ from those which contain consonant clusters.

Vowels deleted  in connected speech are those of schwa sound or weak sound, unstressed syllables, and functional words.

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Reading III – Vocabulary

Vocabulary

1. Innate (adj) : natural, inborn

She has an innate sense of humor.

2. Predict (verb) : to tell before it happens

The old man predicted the murder of the king long ago.

3. Precise (adj) : accurate, exact

Sewing a dress requires precise measurements.

4. Variety (noun): selection, diversity

The big supermarket has the most complete variety of food.

5. Weigh (verb) : consider, think about

She weighs all her options carefully before making her decision.

6. Cater (verb) : to provide food for parties

They usually cater for rich, important people.

7. Interfere (verb) : to come between, meddle

The students stopped fighting after the teacher interfered and separated them.

8. Infinite (adj) : limitless, endless

His parents are so rich, it seems their money is infinte.

9. Significant (adj) : important, vital, major

The little boy showed significant progress in his piano lesson.

10. Experiment (verb, noun) : (to) test, (to) try out

The scientiest’s experiment was a success.

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