Sociolinguistics – Types of Variety in Multilingual Nations

Types of Variety in Multilingual Nations

A. Vernacular Language

Vernacular Language is a language that is used daily in a community; it has not been standardized and has no official status. Vernaculars are usually the first language learned by the people in multilingual communities. Therefore they are usually used in a narrow range of informal functions, such as among families and friends. The many different ethnic or tribal languages used by different  ethnic groups in Indonesia, for instance, can be categorized as vernacular languages.

B. Standard Language

Standard Language is a variety which is written, and has undergone some degree of  regularization or codification. It is regarded as a prestigious variety simply because it is used by and influenced by those who are politically powerful, and economically and socially prestigious. The English language is an example of standard language in multilingual nations such as Malaysia and India.

C. Lingua Franca

Lingua Franca is a language serving as a regular means of communication between different linguistic groups in a multilingual community. In a lot of cases, lingua francas become the language of a nation. For example:

– Swahili in Tanzania

– Russia in the Soviet Union

– Tok Pisin in Papua New Guinea

– Bahasa Indonesia in Indonesia

D. Pidgins and Creoles

Pidgin is a variety specially created for purpose of communicating with some other group, and not used by any community for communication among themselves (Hudson, 1980:61). Pidgins may be derived from trade interaction (trade language), and further develop as a means of communication between people with no common language. The vocabulary arises from a dominant language.

Creoles are pidgins that have been acquired by a number of people as their first language, signifying that it has become a full language in its own right (Aitchison, 1986:177). Creoles often arose on slave plantation in certain areas where Africans of many different tribes could communicate only by the plantation pidgin.

Pidgins and Creoles can be based on any language.  Haitian Creole, for example, which is based on the French language, are spoken in parts of Jamaica. Krio, the language spoken by as many as 200,000 Siera Leoneans, developed partly from an English-based pidgin. Creoles become fully developed languages, with more lexical items and grammatical distinctions than pidgins. And in time, they become languages as complete in every way as other languages.

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Development Psychology – Hiperaktif


Hiperaktif dikenal juga dengan sebutan  ADD ( Attention Deficit Disorder) atau sekarang lebih lazim disebut ADHD (Attention Deficit Hiperactive Disorder), suatu gejala yang biasanya ditemukan pada anak-anak yang membuat anak tersebut tidak bisa diam dan memusatkan perhatian pada apa yang sedang dihadapinya.

Anak yang hiperaktif tidak bisa duduk diam, selalu bergerak, dan susah untuk tidur. Ia juga mengalami kesulitan dalam membaca, menyimak pelajaran ataupun melalukan permainan yang membutuhkan konsentrasi, karena ia tidak mampu memusastkan perhatiannya. Ciri lain seorang anak hiperaktif adalah kebiasaannya yang impulsif, yaitu tidak bisa mengontrol diri maupun responnya dalam menghadapi kejadian di sekitarnya.  Namun demikian dibutuhkan  diagnosa dari neurolog dan psikolog untuk menentukan apakah seorang anak benar-benar hiperaktif, atau hanya sekadar lasak.

Ada berbagai cara penanganan anak hiperaktif, tergantung pada tingkat gangguan yang diderita anak tersebut:

– Bila ringan, dapat melalui bimbingan dan konseling serta pendidikan khusus. Pada eberapa anak diperlukan juga terapi psikologis untuk mengatasi stres dan konflik dalam hubungan sosial.

– Bila cukup parah, perlu pemberian obat. Namun terapi obat harus dilengkapi dengan terapi psikologis dari beberapa ahli sekaligus seperti neurolog, psikolog, juga guru dan orangtua.

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Healthy Habits

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Healthy Eating

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Study Skills – 5 Golden Rules of Goal Setting

5 Golden Rules of Goal Setting:

1. Set goals that motivate you

The stronger your motivation is, the more chance you will have in achieving your goals. This motivation should be able to answer the question of why you want to achieve a certain goal. For example if your goal is to reach a 3.80 gpa (grade point average) in the first semester, maybe your motivation would be to get a scholarship. So the scholarship will keep you motivated in working hard to achieve a 3.80 gpa.

2. Set SMART goals

S  –  Specific

M  – Measurable

A  –  Attainable

R  –  Relevant

T  –  Time bound

3. Set goals in writing : to bring clarity, to motivate and build your confidence

4. Make action plan : make step by step plan

5. Stick with it : do everything according to your plan and time schedule

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Zum·ba ˈzo͝ombə/ nountrademark 1. an aerobic fitness program featuring movements inspired by various styles of Latin American dance and performed primarily to Latin American dance music.

My simple definition:  a fantastic way to work out

My Zumba inspiration:

Interested?  Check out zumba.

Try it….have fun and get in shape!

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